Fiona Marshall* & Elisabeth Hildebrand
Cattle Before Crops: The Beginnings of Food Production in Africa
Journal of World Prehistory, Vol. 16, No. 2, June 2002. Kluwer Academic Publishing, pp. 99-143
*Dr. Marshall Fiona is the James W. and Jean L. Davis Professor in Arts and Sciences. Department of Anthropology, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO.
In many areas of the world, current theories for agricultural origins emphasize yield as a major concern during intensification. In Africa, however, the need for scheduled consumption shaped the development of food production. African cattle were domesticated during the tenth millennium BP by delayed-return Saharan hunter-gatherers in unstable, marginal environments where predictable access to resources was a more significant problem than absolute abundance. Pastoralism spread patchily across the continent according to regional variations in the relative predictability of herding versus hunting and gathering. Domestication of African plants was late (after 4000 BP) because of the high mobility of herders, and risk associated with cultivation in arid environments. Renewed attention to predictability may contribute to understanding the circumstances that led to domestication in other regions of the world.