George Peter Murdock (1897-1985)
Africa. Its Peoples and Their Culture History
New York. McGraw-Hill. 1959. 456 p.
Part Eleven: North and West African Pastoralism
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The Arabs of Nubia and the eastern Sudan may be designated collectively as the Baggara, although this name is often reserved for those groups whose animal husbandry revolves primarily around cattle. They have a total population of around 5 million and can be classified into the following major tribal groupings.
- Batahin, with the Fadnia. They are camel nomads who occupy the “Island of Meroe” between the White Nile and Atbara Rivers and reveal only slight Negroid admixture.
- Bederia (Bedayria), with the Dubab, Ghodiat, Hamayd (Aulad Hamayd), Hawazma, Teraytia, Tomam, Tumbab, and other seminomadic tribes in Kordofan north of the Nuba, with whom some of the Bederia are strongly mixed.
- Dekakire. A detached tribe in Bagirmi, much mixed with the indigenous Negroes.
- Fertit, including the Mandala (Bandala) and other Arabic-speaking tribes of escaped Negro slaves in the Dar Fertit region. They are sedentary tillers.
- Fezara, with the Bnaa, Gerar (Beni Gerar), Hamid, Kawahla, Maakla, Maalja, Shenabla, and Zayadia tribes of northern Kordofan. They are largely cattle and sheep nomads.
- Gaaliin (Jaalyyin), with the Gamuia, Gemaab, Gimiab, Manasir, Mesallania, Mirafab, Rubatab, and other tribes along the Nile River in Nubia. They are largely sedentary and reveal a strong Nubian component.
- Gimma. A seminomadic tribe along the White Nile.
- Habbania, with the kindred Helba (Beni Heba), Rizeigat (Rizaykat), Taaisha, and Taelba of southern Darfur. They are primarily pastoral and exhibit considerable egroid admixture.
- Hamar. A seminomadic tribe of Dar Hamar in Kordofan.
- Hasania (Hassanyah), with the Husseinat (Husaynat). A seminomadic tribe on the White Nile above Khartoum.
- Hemat (Heimad), with the Kirdi, Salamat, and other tribes in southern Wadai. They are seminomadic and reveal substantial Negroid admixture.
- Kababish (Kubbabish), with the Hawawir and Kerriat. They are camel nomads with a comparatively slight Negroid admixture.
- Kerarish. An Arabized Nubian tribe of camel nomads in the Dongola region.
- Mahamid, with the Atayfat, Eraykat, Mahria, Nawaiba (Nuwaiba), and other tribes in northern Wadai. They are camel nomads with a moderate degree of Negroid admixture.
- Messiria, with the kindred Humr (Homr) of the Dar el Homr region of Kordofan. They are cattle nomads with considerable Negroid admixture.
- Rufaa (Abu Rof), with the Abdullab, Ahamda, Amarna, Awamra, Gubayna, Hamran, Kawasma, Kenana, Khawalda, Lahawiin, and other tribes of the Blue Nile region. They are seminomadic herders of sheep and goats.
- Selim (Beni Selim). They are cattle nomads along the White Nile, with a strong Negroid admixture.
- Shaikia (Cheykye, Shegya). They are camel nomads ruling over Nubian serfs along the Nile.
- Shukria, with the Dubania (Dubaina) and Dubasiin tribes on the Atbara tributary of the Nile. They are camel nomads.
- Shuwa (Choua, Shiwa, Shoa), with the Assale (Lesiye), Dagana (Degena), Khozzam (Chozzam, Thuzam), and other tribes of Bornu and western Bagirmi. They are nomadic or seminomadic cattle herders and number about 100,000.
- Tungur (Toundjour, Tunzer), inhabiting Darfur, Kanem, and Wadai. They are sedentary remnants, with a strong Negroid admixture, of the earliest Arabized immigrants into the cent ral Sudan, probably refugees from Dongola.