George Peter Murdock (1897-1985)
Africa. Its Peoples and Their Culture History
New York. McGraw-Hill. 1959. 456 p.
Part Eight: Expansion of the Bantu
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Northeast Coastal Bantu
From the maritime ports, Arab and Swahili merchants penetrated into the interior as far as the present Belgian Congo, trading for ivory, gold, and slaves, and introducing rice and other crops as well as novel merchandise.
The foregoing historical discussion provides an explanation of the three distinct clusters into which it seems advisable to divide the Northeast Coastal Bantu.
- Bondei (Wabondei, Waschensi). This tribe appears to be an amalgam of Digo, Shambala, and Zigula elements.
- Kwere (Oukwere, Wakwere), with the Doe (Oudoe, Wadoe).
- Luguru (Waluguru), with the Kami (Wakami) and Khutu (Kuru, Wakhuru). The Khutu are largely detribalized today. The Luguru proper were reported in 1934 to number about 150,000.
- Nguru (Ngulu, Wangulu, Wanguru).
- Zigula (Ouazigoua, Wazegura, Zeguha, Zigua) , with the Ruvu (Rouvou, Ruwu).
- Digo (Adigo, Wadigo). They number about 11 0,000 and are mainly Moslems.
- Duruma (Derouma, Waduruma). They number about 35,000.
- Giryama (Dziryama, Kiriama, WagiJiama), with the Chonyi (Dschogni), Jibana (Dzihana), Kambe (Wakambe), Kaura, Rabai (Warabai), and Ribe (Waribe). They number about 155,000.
- Gosha (Wagoseia, Wagosha), with the detached Gobawein. Remnants of the Bantu who formerly occupied the valley of the Juba River, they are now completely acculturated to the Sab tribe of Somali. They numbered about 30,000 in 1922.
- Pokomo (Wapokomo), with the kindred Elwana (Malakote), Korokoro, and Malachini. They occupy the valley of the Tana River, number about 20,000, and are subject to the Bararetta tribe of Galla.
- Shebelle, with the detached Dube, Eile, Shidle, and Tunni Torre. Remnants of the Bantu who formerly occupied the valley of the Shebelle River, they are now completely acculturated to the dominant Somali.
- Bajun (Badjouni, Bagiuni, Bajoni, Barjun, Bayoun, Gunya, Patschuni, Wagunya, Watikuu). They inhabit the coast and offlying islands in southern Somalia and adjacent Kenya and number about 2,000.
- Comorians, embracing the Ngazija and Nzwani. They inhabit the Comoro Islands and were reported in 1936 to number about 130,000.
- Hadimu (Wahadimu), with the Tumbatu (Warumbaru) . They inhabit the island of Zanzibar and the adjacent small island of Tumbaru and were reported in 1924 to number about 100,000.
- Pemba (Wapemba). They inhabit the island of Pemba and were reported in 1924 to number about 80,000.
- Segeju (Asegedzu, Mossegale, Wasegeju), with other Arabized and Islamized tribes along the coast of Kenya. They have a total population of about 75,000, of whom 25,000 are specifically Segeju.
- Zaramo (Dzalamo, Wasaramo), with the Ndengereko, Rufiji, and other Arabized and Islamized tribes along the coast of Tanganyika, in the hinterland of Dar es Salaam, and on the offiying island of Mafia.