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George Peter Murdock (1897-1985)
Africa. Its Peoples and Their Culture History

New York. McGraw-Hill. 1959. 456 p.

Part Seven: Cultural Impact of Indonesia
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SemanticVocabAfrica. Senegambians
MindNode Mapping diagram. Senegambians

Northwest of the Peripheral Mande, along a narrow strip of the Atlantic seaboard extending northward to the border of the Berber-speaking Tasumsa of Mauritania, live a group of peoples whom we shall denote collectively as the Senegambians since the majority reside in Senegal and Gambia. Some, however, inhabit Portuguese Guinea and French Guinea, where the westward expansion of the Nuclear Mande has confined them to an ever more restricted coastal zone and has enveloped one remnant group, the Tenda, in an interior pocket. All are Negroes, and all speak languages of the Atlantic subfamily of the Nigritic stock. They are consequently linguistic cousins to the six Atlantic tribes whom we found, in the preceding chapter, similarly submerged by the expanding Peripheral Mande. Their principal tribal divisions are listed and identified below.

  1. Baga (Bago), embracing the Binari, Fore (Mbulunich), Kalum, Koba, Mandenyi, Manduri, Sitemu, and Sobane. They number about 45,000, of whom a few have been converted to Islam.
  2. Balante (Ballante), with the Kunante. They number about 170,000.
  3. Banyun (Bagnoun, Bainuk, Banhun), with the kindred Kassanga and Kobiana. They number about 10.000.
  4. Biafada (Biafar, Bifra, Byafada). They number about 10,000.
  5. Bijogo (Bidyago, Bijago, Bijuga, Bisago, Bissago). They occupy the Bijagos Archipelago and number about 20,000.
  6. Diola (Dyola, Yola), embracing the Bayot (Adayamat), Felup (Ayamat, Fulup, Huluf, Kabil, Karon), Filham (Filhol, Fogny, Fulun), Her, and Jiwat (Djiwat). They number about 150,000.
  7. Landuma (Landoma, Landouman), with the detached Tiapi (Tyapi). They number about 20,000.
  8. Nalu (Nalou). They number about 10,000.
  9. Pepel (Papel), with the Bram (Bola, Burama), Mandyako, and Mankanya (Mancagne). They number about 135,000.
  10. Serer (Kegueme, Sarer), embracing the Non (Nono) and Sin (Sinsin). They number about 300,000.
  11. Tenda, embracing the Badiaranke (Badian, Badyaranke, Udyade), Bassari (Basari, Biyan), Boeni (Tenda Boeni), Koniagi (Awunlen, Coniagui), and Mayo (Tenda Mayo). They number about 25,000, of whom the Boeni alone are Moslems.
  12. Wolof (Djoloff, Jaloff, Jolof, Ouolof, Yallof), with the Lebu. They number about 850,000 and are Moslems.