George Peter Murdock (1897-1985)
Africa. Its Peoples and Their Culture History
New York. McGraw-Hill. 1959. 456 p.
Part Seven: Cultural Impact of Indonesia
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The break marks the beginning of another province, which extends westward acrosss southern Dahomey, Togo, and Ghana to the eastern Ivory Coast. It is inhabited by kindred Negro peoples speaking languages of the Twi branch of the Kwa subfamily of the Negritic stock. The newly independent state of Ghana, which occupies the heart of the province, has adopted the name of the old Mande empire discussed in Chapter 11, but no relationship whatsoever exists between the two. Despite attempts to invent a connection through a misreading of legendary evidence, the inhabitants of the ancient and modern states of Ghana belong to separate branches of the Negro stock which differ markedly both in culture and in language.
Because of the geographical difference noted above, the original Sudanic agricultural complex may have become somewhat more firmly established in the Twi province than in the Southern Nigerian province. Akee, ambary, cotton, cow peas, earth peas, fluted pumpkins, gourd , Guinea yams, millet, oil palms, okra, roselle, sesame, sorghum, and yergan are all grown today in at least certain sections of the province. But only on the northern fringe, particularly in the hill region of central Togo, do they retain a significant position in the agricultural economy. Elsewhere they have been in very large measure replaced by Malaysian plants, especially yams and taro, which have wrought a revolution comparable to that already noted for the Southern Nigerians.
Culturally and linguistically the Twi peoples fall into four major clusters, under which their component tribes are classified below.
- Adangme (Adampa), embracing the Ada, Kpone, Krobo, Ningo, Osuduku, Prampram, and Shai. Together with the adjacent Ga, they probably number at least 200,000.
- Ewe (Eibe, Ephe, Krepe), embracing the Anglo, Glidyi, Ho, and numerous other subtribes. They number about 700,000.
- Fon (Dahomeans, Fonnu), with the Adja, Agonglin, Aizo (Aizangbe, Whydah), Djedj, Ilwelanu, Mahi (Maxi), and Watyi (Wachi). Together with the Gun, they number nearly a million.
- Ga (Gan), with the Awuru (Afuru, Ofuru), Gomwa (Domwa), and Gwan (Akripon).
- Gun (Egun, Goun, Popo), with the Tofinu and Wemenu.
- Popo, embracing the Ge (Anecho, Gen, Mina), Hula (Pla), and Peda. They number about 70,000.
Central Togo Cluster
- Adele (Adeli, Bedere), with the Delo and Lolo. They number about 5,000.
- Akposo (Kposo), embracing the Litimc, Otadi, and Sodo. They number about 30,000.
- Atyuti (Atjud, Atyode), with the Anyana (Agnagan) and Chambuli (Bassen, Tchumbuli). They number a few thousand.
- Avatime (Afatime, Kedemane, Siya), with the Logba, Nyangbo (Nyankpo), and Tafi (Trugbo). They number a few thousand.
- Basila (Akpenu, Baseda, Windjinwindjin), with the detached Bazanche (Podo). They number a few thousand.
- Buem (Balemi, Boem, Bwenum, Lafana, Lefana), with the Ahlo (Achlo, Bogon, Ogo), Akpafu (Lolobi, Maruka, Siwu), Boro, Likpe (Bakpele), and Santrokofi. They number at least 10,000.
- Kebu (Akabu, Akebu, Ekbebe, Kabu). They number about 15,000.
- Krachi (Kratyi), with the Basa (Ayesegn), Cangborong Nchumbulung, Nchumuru, Tchangbore, Tchimboro), Chimboro (Agnamkpase), Kunya (Ahenklo, kogna, Nkunya), and Nawuri (Nawuli, Nawura, Nkatshina). They are akin to the Guang of the Akan cluster and probably number at least 20,000.
- Tribu (Ntribu). This intrusive tribe, numbering a few thousand, belongs to the Tem branch of the Voltaic linguistic subfamily.
- Akyem, with the Akwamu, Akwapim, and Kwahu (Akwahu). They number about 65,000.
- Anyi (Agni), embracing the Arichin, Asaye (Sadqi), Berye (Berrie), Binye (Ano, Bini), Bonda (Bonai, Bonna, Bouanda), Brisa (Aowin, Brossa, Brussa) , Butesya, Dadye (Asikaso, Asuamara, Diabe), Kumwe, Moro (Morunu), Ndenye (Indenie) , Sanwi (Brofi, Sanwign), Sefwi, and Sika. They number about 100,000.
- Ashanti (Asante), with the Ahanta, Asen-Twifo, and Wasa. They number over 700,000.
- Attie (Akye), embracing the Bodde, Kuroba (Krobu) , and Nedde. They number about 55,000.
- Baule (Baoule), with the Agbegnyau, Ayahu, Bomofwe, Ndamefwe, Ngannufwe. and Wure. They number about 400.000.
- Brong (Abron). They number in excess of 75,000.
- Fanti (Fante). They number ar least 200,000, and some estimates run much higher.
- Guang (Bandja, Ghandja, Gibya, Gonya, Gwan, Gwanya, Ngbanye). They number about 50,000 and have been Islamized to some extent.
- Abe (Abbe, Abi, Aby). They number about 30,000.
- Ajukru (Adioukrou, Agyukru, Butburi, Ogykru). They number about 27,000, including the Aizi, an intrusive Kru people.
- Alagya (Aladia, Alladians, Aragya, Jackjack). They number about 5,000.
- Ari (Abidji, Adidji). They number about 10,000.
- Assini (Issinesc, Issynois), embracing the Abure (Akapless, Asoko, Essouma, Esuma), Afema, Evalue (Sahue), and Nzima (Amanya, Apollonians, Zema). They number about 12,000.
- Avikam (Avekwom, Brignan, Brinya, Gbanda, Kwakwa). They number about 5,000.
- Ebrie (Gyuman, Kyama, Tyaman), with the kindred Mbaro Agwa, Goua, Gwa, Gwabyo). They number about 16,000.
- Mekyibo (Byetri, Ewoutire, Ewutile, Vetere, Virte, Vyetere). They number about 4,000.